Pre-Acheulean industry dating at Dungo IV site at Baia Farta, Benguela, Angola

Human Evolution

Along the Angolan coast, the Early Paleolithic sites of Dungo IV and V (Baia Farta, Benguela) have delivered a rich pre-Acheulean lithic industry testifying the antiquity of the hominin settlement in western Africa despite the current absence of any hominin fossil in the area. In Dungo IV, the Paleolithic level is located on a conglomeratic paleo-beach (104 m a.s.l.) buried under an at least 3 m thick sandy layer. In Dungo V, two unearthed large whale fossils are associated with numerous lithic tools intimately mixed with the whale bones. This is the oldest evidence of stranded marine mammal scavenging by hominins in this part of Africa. The lack of volcanism and fossils makes chronological constrain difficult. Considering its configuration, the Dungo IV site may be relevant for a dating based on both the 10Be and 26Al cosmogenic nuclides. For this purpose, a depth profile all along the sandy layer overlying the archeological layer has been sampled. Statistical treatments performed on the 26Al/10Be ratios obtained for the depth profile demonstrate that they all belong to the same population. If we consider that the samples have always been at or close to their sampling depth, the regression modeling allows computing that the surface sedimentary layer has been emplaced at least 614 ka ago and less than 662 ka ago. On the other hand, if we consider that the surface deposit has been truncated, burial durations ranging from 585 ka to 786 ka and truncations lower than 4 m result from the modeling of the evolution of the 10Be and 26Al concentrations as a function of depth.

The analyses of four pre-Acheulean artefacts lead to a minimum burial duration of 730 ka and a maximum burial duration of 2.11 Ma.

The low pre-burial denudation rates modeled from the data acquired for the stone tools as well as for the overlying layer (1–16 m.Ma−1) imply large inherited 26Al and 10Be concentrations. The post-depositional maximum denudation rate of 71 m.Ma−1associated with both the lithic artefacts and the surface sedimentary layer (considering that the samples have always been at or close to their sampling depth) as well as the deduced maximum uplift rate of ∼170 m.Ma−1 are in agreement with the known tectonic evolution and the climatic variability of this area.

This study confirms the antiquity of the hominin presence in western Africa more than 2000 km away from the closest old hominin fossil sites.

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Tuff 7 with Australopithecus afarensis footprints formed during four major eruption events

Human Evolution
Fig. 1. Major volcanoes in the Crater Highlands and the Gregory rift – shaded and coloured SRTM elevation model (February 2000). Africa image: coloured SRTM elevation model (February 2000). Courtesy NASA/JPL/NIMA.

The Upper Laetolil marker Tuffs 1 to 8 are mineralogically similar rocks, but heterogeneous in terms of their texture, structure, proportion of primary minerals, volume of cement and degree of low-temperature alteration. Originally they were deposited as crystal and/or vitric ash of evolved melilite-nephelinitic composition and not as melilitite-(natro)carbonatite. Occurrence of carbonate-silicate melt inclusions in primary minerals supports R. Hay’s conclusion that the ash could have erupted from a carbonatitic volcanic source. Primary minerals (melilite, clinopyroxene, garnet, perovskite, magnetite) in the tuffs are characterised by wide variations in their compositions and two and even more mineral populations are present within each marker tuff. Thus, any correlation between the tuffs from different localities on the basis of mineral composition is very difficult to impossible. Tuff 7, with footprints of Australopithecus afarensis, is a very heterogeneous unit both vertically and laterally that formed during four major eruption events. Trace-element geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotopic data for Tuffs 6, 7 and 8 suggest that compositionally different volcanic sources were involved in their formation. Initial 87Sr/86Sr and 144Nd/143Nd ratios also show that the Sadiman volcano should not be considered as a source for these three marker tuffs at Laetoli. Only Essimingor and Mosonik volcanoes produced rocks that are mineralogically and geochemically similar to the Upper Laetolil marker tuffs, though these volcanoes lie about 100 km from Laetoli.

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New dating is provided for the Neanderthal site of Carihuela Cave

Human Evolution
Fig. 6. Position of the samples for 230Th
234U determination (Table 6) in CIII AE section 1 (unit VI).

Hitherto unpublished 14C and 230Th 234U determinations from Carihuela Cave (Granada province, Andalusia, Spain) raise a possibility of late survival here of Neanderthals and their Mousterian technocomplex into an advanced stage of the Late Pleistocene (MIS-3), when anatomically-modern humans with Upper Palaeolithic toolkits were penetrating the region, and when also several carnivore taxa competed for access to the cave. Previous palaeopalynological studies are reinforced by new pollen analyses of samples extracted from coprolites. The palaeoecological and sedimentological records bear comparison with new data from the Padul peat deposits in the Sierra Nevada, and are in line with the view that there was late persistence of the Mousterian in Granada. There is a pressing need for renewed international multidisciplinary research at Carihuela Cave, with up-to-date lithostratigraphical and dating techniques that can expand on results obtained from fieldwork undertaken by a previous generation of researchers. Carihuela Cave continues to hold out great promise for analysing Neanderthal palaeoecology during the Late Pleistocene up to the appearance in southeastern Iberian Peninsula of anatomically-modern Upper Palaeolithic people, particularly with regard to the earlier phases of the Middle Palaeolithic at the cave which await intensive excavation but apparently extend back in time to the last interglacial period.

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Early Upper Paleolithic subsistence in the Levant: Zooarchaeology of the Ahmarian–Aurignacian sequence at Manot Cave, Israel

Human Evolution
Figure 1. (a) Location of Manot Cave and other sites mentioned in the text; (b) Plan of the cave showing the location of Area C, with the sample squares highlighted red. Area D is the hyena den deposits; (c) The studied profile.

The Early Upper Paleolithic period in the Levant is essential in the studies of the establishment of modern human communities outside Africa, and corresponding archaeological evidence may be used to shed light on human ecology, economy and demography. Specifically, cultural differences between two Early Upper Paleolithic entities, the Early Ahmarian and the Levantine Aurignacian, raise the question of differing adaptations. In this article we use archaeofaunal remains from the Early Upper Paleolithic sequence at Manot Cave (Western Galilee, Israel), to track human hunting patterns, carcass transport and processing within the Early Ahmarian (46–42 ka) and Levantine Aurignacian (38–34 ka) phases. We test two hypotheses: 1) the Ahmarian and Aurignacian represent adaptations to different environments; and 2) the two entities differ in mobility patterns and site use.

Our multivariate taphonomic analysis showed subtle differences in depositional processes between the two phases and demonstrated a primarily anthropogenic complex. In both phases, human subsistence was based on two ungulate species, mountain gazelle (Gazella gazella) and Mesopotamian fallow deer (Dama mesopotamica), with some contribution from birds, tortoises and small mammals. Among the gazelles, it appears that female herds were targeted, and that hunting took place close to the cave. The results of the research show great similarity in environmental exploitation between the Ahmarian and Aurignacian phases concerning prey spectrum and choice, carcass transport and processing. These patterns occupy a middle position between the Middle Paleolithic and the late Epipaleolithic of the region. Despite this, there are also several significant differences between the phases such as increased exploitation of small game (especially birds) and faster accumulation and higher densities of material in the Aurignacian. This may indicate greater occupation intensity during the Aurignacian compared to the Ahmarian, and thus could explain the outstanding character of this entity in the Levant.

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More light shed on use of plants by Homo neanderthalensis

Archaeology, Archeology, Biological Science, Evolution, Human Evolution, Human Origins, Palaeobiology, Paleobiology

The ecology of Neanderthals is a pressing question in the study of hominin evolution. Diet appears to have played a prominent role in their adaptation to Eurasia. Based on isotope and zooarchaeological studies, Neanderthal diet has been reconstructed as heavily meat-based and generally similar across different environments. This image persists, despite recent studies suggesting more plant use and more variation. However, we have only a fragmentary picture of their dietary ecology, and how it may have varied among habitats, because we lack broad and environmentally representative information about their use of plants and other foods. To address the problem, we examined the plant microremains in Neanderthal dental calculus from five archaeological sites representing a variety of environments from the northern Balkans, and the western, central and eastern Mediterranean. The recovered microremains revealed the consumption of a variety of non-animal foods, including starchy plants. Using a modeling approach, we explored the relationships among microremains and environment, while controlling for chronology. In the process, we compared the effectiveness of various diversity metrics and their shortcomings for studying microbotanical remains, which are often morphologically redundant for identification. We developed Minimum Botanical Units as a new way of estimating how many plant types or parts are present in a microbotanical sample. In contrast to some previous work, we found no evidence that plant use is confined to the southern-most areas of Neanderthal distribution. Although interpreting the eco-geographic variation is limited by the incomplete preservation of dietary micro remains, it is clear that plant exploitation was a widespread and deeply rooted Neanderthal subsistence strategy, even if they were predominately game hunters. Given the limited dietary variation across Neanderthal range in time and space in both plant and animal food exploitation, we argue that vegetal consumption was a feature of a generally static dietary niche.

Dental calculus indicates widespread plant use within the stable Neanderthal dietary niche

Robert C. Power, Domingo C. Salazar-García, Mauro Rubini, Andrea Darlas, Katerina Harvati, Michael Walker, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Amanda G.Henry

DOI: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.02.009

Hominin Evolution Book Review: Bones of Contention (1987)

Archaeogenetics, Archaeology, Archeogenetics, Archeology, Biological Science, Evolution, Genetics, Human Evolution, Human Origins, Palaeoanthropology, Palaeobiology, Palaeoecology, Palaeontology, Palaeozoology, Paleoanthropology, Paleobiology, Paleoecology, Paleontology, Radiometric Dating, Research, Science, Taxonomy

It has been a while since I posted on my blog and so out of guilt I’m back again to give you all a new post. This time I want to review a book published in 1987 on the political history of Palaeoanthropology. Written by biochemist Roger Lewin (1944 – Present) it charts the history of the science of Palaeoanthropology and is a must read for anyone interested in the origins of the genus Homo. In 1989, Lewin won the Royal Society Prizes for Science Books, for this very work. Many palaeoanthropologists at the top today could use with reading this book, to help them reflect on their own interaction with other workers in the field. The book was later revised in 1997, which at the time of posting was 21 years ago. There is no question that the field in need of an update to see if the field has changed or remained the same. I hope we will see this 3rd edition in the near future. Among other topics there is no doubt that the recent sexual misconduct of some scientists will need to be discussed in that new book. Let’s talk about the book. The title is very appropriate but when I first heard of it many years ago, I couldn’t help but bring out the immature side in me and snigger at the close similarity of the title with “Boners of Contentions”.  I pondered on the potential look of the T-shirt, I could have printed. Anyway, the book covers a number of important moments in palaeoanthropological history.

In no particular order, Lewin discusses the storm surrounding the Taung Child, Ramapithecus, the KBS Tuff, the famous Australopithecus afarensis A.L. 288-1 and finally the work of the Leakey, specifically the father and the son. Here we see human nature at its worst usually, particularly when we get emotionally invested in a fossil or hypothesis or even flawed radiometric dating. Human evolutionary research, whether the workers in the field, like it or not, is storytelling. Storytelling based on evidence, I might add, but it possesses shades of science fiction. The hominin fossil record is extremely fragmentary and the stories told by these fossils are also extremely fragmentary. They are necessarily weak and this is not particularly useful in a field, where the scientists develop emotional attachment to their pet hypotheses. Even in the light of new evidence many still ignore due to the embarrassment of admitting you are wrong, based on the new evidence. In Palaeoanthropology, admitting you were wrong has been virtually impossible. There is really only one recorded case of a straight up “I was wrong and someone else was right”, that honour goes to Arthur Keith and his review of Raymond Darts Taung Child.

The book allows me to reflect on my own strongly held convictions that Homo heidelbergensis is a valid taxon, at a time when palaeoanthropologists generally shy away from using it. I have imbued it with my own emotional attachment and will remain unconvinced that it should be invalidated. But equally, those who argue the latter, are blinded by their own biases. They do forget that the fossil record of the species is incredibly sparse, with only a handful of skulls representing it. Admittedly, they have a point regarding the Mauer Mandible as the holotype of the species. Ideally, the holotype should be a complete skeleton, but the early science of palaeoanthroplogy was not rigorous in how it proposed new species. So, we are stuck with a mandible in a hypodigm entirely of crania, you read right one mandible and a handful of crania. This, I would argue is no grounds to invalidate a species. In debates, the emotional investment, gets in the way of objective thought and they can get quite heated. Thankfully, I’m not the only palaeoanthropology student indulging in Pro-Heidelbergensis camp. In 2017, Roksandic et al., conducted a revision of the representatives of Homo heidelbergensis. Bones of Contention has allowed me to at the very least be aware of my flaws when it comes to interpreting the fossil record, but with the above paragraph, I’ve really only scratched the surface and it will require a separate essay on the topic for the future.

Bones of Contention is a well written book and while it loosely follows event chronologically, Lewin does compare and contrast most of the events, concluding with a theme that binds these momentous events together. The reminder that we are telling stories is the key thought all palaeoanthropologists should be aware of. I’m aware that the latter is quite a risky statement, but in order for the palaeoanthropology student to be as objective as possible, we need to keep reminding ourselves of that. Many at the top, I suspect, will laugh at this as obsurd. One could argue that the science is far more rigorous in every way today than the time Eoanthropus dawsonii was first unveiled to the world. The Humans that study the fossils, well they have not changed. We are still flawed scientists, whether we like to admit it or not. This is uncomfortable for me to say, but it is true. In the early 1900’s, scientists saw hominin evolution as a variation of the chain of being, a line from ancient apes to human’s, today a variation of multiregional evolutionism is the hip new hypothesis with the “river delta” as its logo.

One topic that the book does not cover is the nature of public engagement of palaeoanthropology contrasted with scientific process associated with palaeoanthropology. For me, these are two different worlds, incredibly incompatible and one scoffs at the other in righteous indignation. There will be no way to bridge the gap between the two. Yes, some seem to be bridging this gap, but if you really dig deeper, the reality is very different. Science is an ever shifting process of evidence evaluation, something that is incompatible with the requirement of certainty in the press. I often cringe at the often used phrase that “textbooks will have to be re-written on palaeoanthropology”. This comes as no surprise to any palaeoanthropology student, but this statement implies that palaeoanthropologists had figured out the evolutionary steps hominins took over the past seven million years to get to where we are today. Far from it and this is what angers a lot of palaeoanthropology students and lecturers. The media need a hook and unfortunately the most effective hook to draw the public in is the above statement. You can’t blame them for reaching as wide an audience as possible. But this has meant that palaeoanthropologists in particular are cautious when they engage with the media. The seemingly innocuous move to record conference talks on new scientific findings is very risky from the point of view of the speaker. Choice of words at a presentation on record and the choice of words on the academic paper may be subtly different but they have the potential to ruin the academic standing of the speaker. Additionally, journals have strict embargo rules on when engagement with the media can begin. Break these rules and the paper will never be published. There will remain a tension between these two worlds for many centuries to come. I hope that the 3rd edition of Bones of Contention will cover this in more detail than I have here.

The only criticism I have of the book is the placement of the black and white photographs in the book. It would be more beneficial to have them scattered throughout the book, associated with their appropriate chapters, instead of combining them together  in two groups in the centre of the book. This is not much of a criticism, but it does demonstrate the difficulty I had in my attempt to find one. It is an excellent book. To use a quote from Leonard to Sheldon in the Big Bang Theory, reading this book “is like looking into an obnoxious little mirror”. It help us re-examine ourselves and re-focuses our thoughts on a very controversial science.

quote-probably-the-most-important-skill-that-children-learn-is-how-to-learn-too-often-we-give-roger-lewin-149-71-97

 

 

 

Palaeoanthropologist Alan Cyril Walker (1938 – 2017)

Archaeology, Archeology, Cancer, Death, Human Evolution, Human Origins, Palaeoanthropology, Palaeobiology, Palaeontology, Paleoanthropology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Research, Sadness

CaptureAlan Cyril Walker (born August 23, 1938) died on November 20, 2017, of pancreatic cancer. He was a world-renowned paleoanthropologist and the recipient of numerous awards for his extraordinary scientific achievements, including a “genius” award from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, and lifetime awards such as the Charles R. Darwin Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and the Leighton Wilkie prize of the Center for Research into the Anthropological Foundations of Technology (CRAFT) and the Stone Age Institute, Indiana University, and the International Fondation Fyssen Prize in Paris. He was one of the only scholars in the world elected to the Royal Academy (U.K.) as well as the United States National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Dr. Walker was born in Leicester, England, the second of four sons of Cyril Walker, a carpenter, and Edith Tidd Walker, a housewife. He was preceded in death by his parents, his first wife Patricia Nicholson, and a younger brother, Gerald Walker. He is survived and mourned by his elder brother, J. Trevor Walker and his younger brother Michael D. Walker, both of whom livie in England, his loving second wife of 42 years, anthropologist and author Pat Shipman, of Moncure, N.C. , his son Simon B. Walker, and his son’s wife Shellene Wellnitz Walker, and his granddaughters Bryn and Meghan Walker of Morrisville, N. C. In addition, he is remembered fondly by many of his former students and colleagues in several countries.

Alan Walker earned an undergraduate degree with honors in the Natural Sciences (Geology, Zoology, Mineralogy, Petrology, and Palaeontology). Following his childhood fascination with animals and fossils, Walker obtained a grant to attend the University of London, earning a Ph.D. in Anatomy and Palaeontology under the mentorship of John Napier. His thesis topic was a study of the functional anatomy and behavior of living and fossil lemurs of Madagascar. His work had a major influence on the field, emphasizing deducing the behaviors of extinct species from living ones to paleontology. He later received an honorary D.Sc. from the University of Chicago.

For much of his career, Dr. Walker was a brilliant teacher of human gross anatomy, training thousands of future physicians. Institutions where he worked included the Royal Free Hospital, School of Medicine, London (19165), Makerere University College, Kampala, Uganda (1965-1969), the University of Nairobi Medical School, Kenya (1969-1974), Harvard Medical School (1973-1978), and The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (1978-1995). In 1995 he moved to The Pennsylvania State University to teach anatomy and biology to undergraduate and graduate students, retiring in 2010 as an Evan Pugh Professor of Anthropology & Biology.
Throughout his academic career, Alan Walker was known for his kindness and generosity to students, for the tremendous breadth of his interests and knowledge, and for pioneering new approaches to evolutionary problems. He was instrumental in developing the field of dental microwear to deduce diets of extinct species and was among the first to the study of the structure of the inner ear of fossils to understand their patterns of locomotion and movement of extinct animals.
He was also known for his collaborations in finding fossils with Richard and Meave Leakey in Kenya. One of their most important discoveries was the finding, excavation, and analysis of the most complete ever skeleton of Homo erectus from Nariokotome, Kenya. This skeleton revealed the startlingly tall and lanky stature of a youngster of the species that first migrated out of the African continent. His research also had a major impact on the study of fossil apes, following his discovery of thousands of bones of several extinct apelike creatures on Rusinga and Mfwangano Islands in Lake Victoria, Kenya.

In accordance with his wishes, there will be no funeral or memorial services. Condolences may be sent to his wife, Dr. Pat Shipman, at 3140 Chatham Church Road., Moncure NC 27559 or (pat.shipman9@gmail.com). In lieu of flowers, friends and family in the U.S. may send donations to St John’s College, Cambridge, at www.cantab.org/giveonline or, in the U.K., to https://johnian.joh.cam.ac.uk/giving/donate.

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Michael Jackson’s Pet – Bubbles the Chimpanzee (July 2019 Update)

Human Evolution
monkey-1

Bubbles was born on the 30th of April 1983 at a medical lab in Texas and sold to the American Icon Michael Jackson when Bubbles was just eight months old. Jackson enlisted celebrity primate keeper Bob Dunn to help train him in performing a very unconvincing backslide. One of his notable tendencies included covering his ears whenever the words “heavy metal” were mentioned. Jackson famously flew Bubbles during legs of his Bad Tour between 1987 and 1988.

Jackson purchased the Sycamore Valley ranch in 1988 for $17 million, which did not have a zoo at the time. He spent a number of years developing the new zoo at the back of the property, but Bubbles was sent to live under the care of Bob Dunn. Jackson requested to see Bubbles from time to time, but when Jackson’s three children arrived on the scene, this brought an end to their interactions, as Bubbles was deemed too dangerous to be around young children. Dunn cared for Bubbles for several years before transferring him to the Centre for Great Apes in Wauchula, Florida under the care of Patti Regan. Michael Jackson always maintained ownership of Bubbles, but he never contributed to the cost of care for the chimp throughout his life. The Michael Jackson estate now contributes towards the nearly £17,000 ($22,000) a year required to care for the elderly chimp. The Centre for Great Apes is home to around 50 animals, with each one costing about the same amount to house each year.

Pattie Regan had to teach him to become “normal”, how to share food, greet and groom his fellow primates and how to make up with his room-mates after a disagreement. As of the Summer of 2019, Bubbles is 36 years of age, greying and living out the rest of his life at the rescue centre. Bubbles is the dominant chimp in his group weighing nearly 80 kg. He lives in a group of seven chimps, four females (a number of whom he “likes”), and three males. Bubbles has never fathered children as the sanctuary cannot afford to care for babies. All chimps have had vasectomies conducted to keep cost low long term. Following Jackson’s death in 2009, Patti Ragan turned down a request to fly Bubbles to Los Angeles, for the Memorial service. She has never shown pictures of Michael to Bubbles to avoid upsetting him because he viewed Jackson as a “mother figure”.  La Toya Jackson has been the only member of the Jackson family to visit Bubbles since the death of Michael. She appeared at the sanctuary as part of a TV documentary, during which she broke down in tears in front of a disinterested Bubbles. Despite years in the spotlight, he has adapted well to his change of lifestyle, although he does hate having his photo taken.

In 2014, the famous primatologist Jane Goodall was accosted by TMZ reporters, who asked for her thoughts on Hollywood’s love affair with exotic pets. During the brief conversation, the reporters brought up the subject of Jackson’s pet chimp. “I went to see him and we talked about Bubbles. I ticked him off. Bubbles is still alive and he’s beautiful. But when he was with Michael he was being beaten. Chimpanzees belong in the forest and (making a pet out of) chimpanzees are one of the worst things you can possibly do. By the time you get to seven or eight they’re dangerous,” Goodall said. LaToya Jackson’s notoriously abusive ex-husband Jack Gordon claimed in the past that Jackson abused Bubbles. “I saw Michael punch Bubbles, kick him in the stomach. Michael used to say ‘He doesn’t feel it. He’s a chimpanzee. I have to discipline him,” Gordon said.

In July of 2017, the Great Ape Centre in collaboration with gallery owner Adam Brand put together an exhibition of artwork by Bubbles to help raise funds for the rescue centre. Much of the artwork sold for thousands of dollars.

Director Taika Waititi was due to get to work on a new stop-motion movie on life with Michael Jackson, through the eyes of the chimpanzee. But Taika’s busy schedule meant that he officially stepped away from plans to direct Bubbles. With that, Netflix announced they were pulling out of the project as well. Bubbles had been in pre-production at Starburns Industries, the animation-focused production company co-founded by Dan Harmon. Its credits include the stop-motion Anomalisa, which scored a Best Picture Oscar nomination in 2016.

Homo neanderthalensis and Cannibalism

Human Evolution

Krapina Cannibalised Bones

Neanderthal extinction is one of the most widely debated topics
in Eurasian prehistory. Most of the proposed scenarios in the past
have related the extinction of the species with the spread of
Anatomically Modern Homo sapiens (AMHS) throughout Europe.
According to this scenario, AMHS would have benefited from some
kind of cultural or biological advantage over Neanderthals (Pettitt,
2000; Hockett and Haws, 2005; Svodoba, 2005; Kuhn and Stiner,
2006). At the opposite extreme, other authors have proposed a
purely climatic scenario in which Neanderthals retreated due to
environmental changes, leaving an empty space in which AMHS
flourished as a consequence of having less strict ecological
restrictions (Finlayson, 2004; Finlayson and Carrion, 2007). An intermediate
position proposes a mixed scenario in which the climatic
oscillations of OIS 3 would have favoured the expansion of
AMHS over that of Neanderthals (Mellars, 1998; d’Errico and
Sanchez Go~ni, 2003; Banks et al., 2008; Barton et al., 2011). In
any case, all these scenarios are based on cultural, biological or
climatic assumptions which are the subject of heated debate. Here
we propose a much simpler scenario, taking into account only one
of the traits that seems to characterize a number of Neanderthal
populations: cannibalism.

Cannibalism has been documented in a number of Neanderthal
sites: Kaprina (Russell, 1987; Patou-Mathis, 1997; White and Toth,
2007), level 25 from Combe Grenal (Garralda and Vandermeersch,
2000), Moula-Guercy (Defleur et al., 1999) Pradelles (Maureille
et al., 2007), Cueva del Boquete de Zafarraya (Barroso et al.,
2006), El Sidron (Rosas et al., 2006).

The above two paragraphs were taken from the July 2017 article on modelling cannibalism in Homo neanderthalensis. Check it out here.

List of Archaeological Sites with evidence of Cannibalism

Croatia – Krapina

France:

  • Combe-Grenal
  • Moula-Guercy
  • Pradelles

Spain:

  • Cueva del Boquete de Zafarraya
  • El Sidron

Lessons of Homo naledi

Anatomy, Archaeology, Archeogenetics, Archeology, Biological Science, Death, Evolution, Human Evolution, Palaeoanthropology, Palaeobiology, Palaeoecology, Palaeontology

New discoveries of fossilised hominin remains have to varying degrees helped to shape our ever-morphing interpretation of hominin evolution. Homo naledi is a case in point.

Though many worker in the field of palaeoanthropology were disappointed with the confirmed Middle Pleistocene age of the Dinaledi remains, this news nevertheless fills a void in our understanding of Middle Pleistocene evolution.

H. naledi confirms what we have known since the astonishing discovery of Homo floresiensis, namely that small brained hominins continued to thrive in some part of the planet right up to recent times. H. naledi can now join Homo floresiensis in the small brain Middle to Late Pleistocene club.

Palaeoanthropologist can now exercise a high level of skepticism on dating hominin fossilised remains using morphological stucture and statistics. In 2015, palaeoanthropologist John Francis Thackeray concluded Homo naledi to be over 1.5 Ma, while Mana Dembo and her colleagues concluded an age of 930,000 years of age for the Rising Star remains. Though Dembo et al were closer to actual age of the remains, they were still nearly 600,000 years off.

Finally, H. naledi continues to confirm what we have known since the announcement of Australopithecus sediba that hominin evolution features an ever changing mosasicism. With Australopithecine-like shoulders and cranium, while the lower limbs and foot appears more derived.

New discoveries of fossilised hominin remains have to varying degrees helped to shape our ever-morphing interpretation of hominin evolution. Homo naledi is a case in point.