Alan Cyril Walker (born August 23, 1938) died on November 20, 2017, of pancreatic cancer. He was a world-renowned paleoanthropologist and the recipient of numerous awards for his extraordinary scientific achievements, including a “genius” award from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, and lifetime awards such as the Charles R. Darwin Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and the Leighton Wilkie prize of the Center for Research into the Anthropological Foundations of Technology (CRAFT) and the Stone Age Institute, Indiana University, and the International Fondation Fyssen Prize in Paris. He was one of the only scholars in the world elected to the Royal Academy (U.K.) as well as the United States National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Dr. Walker was born in Leicester, England, the second of four sons of Cyril Walker, a carpenter, and Edith Tidd Walker, a housewife. He was preceded in death by his parents, his first wife Patricia Nicholson, and a younger brother, Gerald Walker. He is survived and mourned by his elder brother, J. Trevor Walker and his younger brother Michael D. Walker, both of whom livie in England, his loving second wife of 42 years, anthropologist and author Pat Shipman, of Moncure, N.C. , his son Simon B. Walker, and his son’s wife Shellene Wellnitz Walker, and his granddaughters Bryn and Meghan Walker of Morrisville, N. C. In addition, he is remembered fondly by many of his former students and colleagues in several countries.
Alan Walker earned an undergraduate degree with honors in the Natural Sciences (Geology, Zoology, Mineralogy, Petrology, and Palaeontology). Following his childhood fascination with animals and fossils, Walker obtained a grant to attend the University of London, earning a Ph.D. in Anatomy and Palaeontology under the mentorship of John Napier. His thesis topic was a study of the functional anatomy and behavior of living and fossil lemurs of Madagascar. His work had a major influence on the field, emphasizing deducing the behaviors of extinct species from living ones to paleontology. He later received an honorary D.Sc. from the University of Chicago.
For much of his career, Dr. Walker was a brilliant teacher of human gross anatomy, training thousands of future physicians. Institutions where he worked included the Royal Free Hospital, School of Medicine, London (19165), Makerere University College, Kampala, Uganda (1965-1969), the University of Nairobi Medical School, Kenya (1969-1974), Harvard Medical School (1973-1978), and The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (1978-1995). In 1995 he moved to The Pennsylvania State University to teach anatomy and biology to undergraduate and graduate students, retiring in 2010 as an Evan Pugh Professor of Anthropology & Biology.
Throughout his academic career, Alan Walker was known for his kindness and generosity to students, for the tremendous breadth of his interests and knowledge, and for pioneering new approaches to evolutionary problems. He was instrumental in developing the field of dental microwear to deduce diets of extinct species and was among the first to the study of the structure of the inner ear of fossils to understand their patterns of locomotion and movement of extinct animals.
He was also known for his collaborations in finding fossils with Richard and Meave Leakey in Kenya. One of their most important discoveries was the finding, excavation, and analysis of the most complete ever skeleton of Homo erectus from Nariokotome, Kenya. This skeleton revealed the startlingly tall and lanky stature of a youngster of the species that first migrated out of the African continent. His research also had a major impact on the study of fossil apes, following his discovery of thousands of bones of several extinct apelike creatures on Rusinga and Mfwangano Islands in Lake Victoria, Kenya.
In accordance with his wishes, there will be no funeral or memorial services. Condolences may be sent to his wife, Dr. Pat Shipman, at 3140 Chatham Church Road., Moncure NC 27559 or (firstname.lastname@example.org). In lieu of flowers, friends and family in the U.S. may send donations to St John’s College, Cambridge, at www.cantab.org/giveonline or, in the U.K., to https://johnian.joh.cam.ac.uk/giving/donate.
Date Found: March 1985
Found By: Ngrejeng Villager
Locality: Near Ngrejeng Village, Indonesia
Fossil: Partial mandible (Right side), with M1 and M2. The latter had not yet erupted at time of death.
Age: 1.02 – 1.51 million years of age
Papers to check out:
1994 – Aziz et al – Preliminary report on recent
discoveries of fossil hominids from the Sangiran area, Java.
2005 – Kaifu et al – Hominid mandibular remains from Sangiran (1952-1986) Collection
2006 – Kaifu – Advanced dental reduction in Javanese Homo erectus
The ‘Black Hole’ of Palaeoanthropology is not a term you hear very often, but then again what is there to say about the biogeographic history of a 1.77 million square kilometer region (Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and Iran) with virtually no faunal, human or archaeological sites. At this point it would seem easy to resign yourself to the words of Timothy D. White at the dawn of the 21st century, that we are not going to find many more fossil hominins. The mark of a great palaeoanthropologist is to never give up that curiosity for the unknown. Since White’s depressing prediction, he has been roundhouse kicked to Wrongville, with the spectacular finds of Ethiopia, South Africa, Myanmar, China, Flores and much much more. We have learned so much thus far, don’t lets forget this. Sounds great but these inevitably throw up more questions than answers. And the ‘Black hole’ is a particularly hard nut to crack.
What does archaeology have to offer? Ethiopia features the earliest concrete evidence for hominin stone tool manufacture. At 2.6 million years of age it predates the earliest known human – Homo habilis – by less than 300,000 years years (Fossil Code: A.L. 666). Saudi Arabia has a rather rich representation of Mode 1 (Oldowan) stone tool clusters. If you don’t know to millimeter accuracy where the stone tool was found, or if it is a surface find then it is worthless to science. The Saudi sites were also used during the Holocene (11,700 years ago to present), begging the question how can you separate Early Pleistocene (2.5 million years ago to 700,000 years ago) from Holocene activity? At least we can tell that hominins took one route out of Africa. Stone tools similar to the Oldowan found at Perim Island supports the hypothesis that early hominins crossed the Bab al Mandab Strait (20 miles wide). Iran has probably the most depressing lack of archaeological evidence of the region. Isolated finds dominate, both the Oldowan and Acheulean records of Iran and few excavations have taken place. South of the Caspian Sea is the site of Ganj Par, which yielded 100 limestone tools within half a hectare. This assemblage shares similarities with those of Ubediya, Israel and the Oldupai Gorge (also known as the Olduvai Gorge), Tanzania. Turkey repeats much the same story. Of the 200 Palaeolithic sites, less than 25 have been even partially excavated. The majority are restricted to the fringes of the Anatolian plateau. None are any older than 1.3 million years of age, further supported by Argon-Argon dating of Kula, western Turkey to 1.24 million years of age. The site was the location of a palaeomeander which contained a solitary Quartz flake, 5 x 4 cm. Volcanic activity interfered with the palaeomeander and it was that lava flow that allowed the date to be so accurate. The take-home-message from Turkey is the earliest securely dated archaeological remains support the 1.1 million years calculated for the Kocabas skullcap, which shares affinities with OH 9 and KNM ER 3733, attributed to H. erectus. Debate continues as to its taxonomic status, but it does reflect a great deal of H. erectus characteristics. The Archaeology tells us that hominins with the ability to make stone tools were already out of Africa 1.8 million years ago, at the site of Dmanisi, Georgia.
It is the richest fossil hominin location at the ‘black hole’ fringe. The Fall of 2013 was just another milestone in sites long history of archaeological investigation. The discovered cranium (D4500) was reunited with its jaw (D2600) and the team of palaeoanthropologists led by David Lordkipandize concluded that the five individuals represented members of the same species, but retracted the classification of D2600 (Homo georgicus) for Homo erectus ergaster georgicus. This raised some eyebrows in the palaeoanthropological community, particularly Fred Spoor, palaeoanthropologist and lecturer at the UCL Department of Anthropology, who pointed out that such an action is not outlined in the code of zoological nomenclature. This is a minor debate in the palaeoanthropology, but most agree that Homo erectus exhibited a variation comparable to that seen in modern Homo sapiens today. Dmanisi is proof that hominins were already out of the African continent by 1.8 million years. Additionally, although the dating of the hominins of Java are in the doldrums, these specimens could be as much as 1.8 million years of age. Prior to that time some hominin species made it’s way north, but which one?
On the 23rd of January 1995, a French-Chadian team of palaeontologists discovered a fragment of fossil jaw (Fossil Code: KT 12/H1) lying on the gravel desert of northern Chad. The fossil (nicknamed “Abel”) could not be accurately dated, nevertheless stratigraphic layers nearby suggested it could as much as 3.5 million years of age. Back then, the river Bahr El Ghazal flowed into a 3 million square kilometer lake called Megachad. This hominin foraged on grasses that dominated the Koro Toro region. The palaeontologists gave “Abel” a new species name – Australopithecus bahrelghazali distinguishing it from another australopithecean – Australopithecus afarensis. That species lived in the eastern region of the continent, over 2,500 km from the Bahr El Ghazal site. The animal remains found in the stratigraphic layers of both regions were pretty much identical, which means the ecosystems were the same. Therefore, you can see why some palaeoanthropologists consider it plausible that “Abel” is just another Au. afarensis. This goes back to the argument that, what we are looking at here is just another variation of the same species. Either way, here we have australopitheceans in eastern and north central Africa. Theoretically, it is plausible for australopitheceans to have made their way into Arabia.
Every organism has a landscape format that they thrive within. Lions are quite at home in the savannah, Tigers frolick in the dense jungles of the Indian subcontinent and hominins, particularly australopitheceans, were quite at home in savannahs. If we are to prove that they made their way into Arabia, there should be an extension of savannah into the Eurasia 3-4 million years ago. Sadly we are not seeing this, but what do we see. The faunal record of Saudi Arabia is particularly fragmented and sparse. Western Turkey (Calta) 2.3 million years ago, saw Raccoons, Giraffes, Hippos and the extinct “Running” Hyena. Many associate Bethlehem with the Christian story, but few know that at about the same time, this region featured Raccoons, Sabre-Toothed Cats, Rhino, an ancestor to the Mammoth and ancestor to the modern boar. While 110 kilometers north of Bethlehem and 700,000 years later, Baboons lived south of the Lake of Tiberias, around Ubeidiya. Lakes were magnets for faunal activity and therefore hominin activity.
The An Nedfud desert of northern Saudi Arabia is classic wilderness today, 2 million years ago it was the hub of a diverse ecosystem with a lake as the centrepiece. The faunal remains were recovered from three localities and share similarities with the kind of fauna you would expect at Ubeidiya and the Oldupai Gorge. Hippos were found at these sites and since modern day counterparts prefer standing water to a depth of 5 meters, it gives an initial sense of the size of ‘Lake An Nedfud’. A lake capable of supporting fish life, but this is not the only lake to have supported faunal biodiversity in the ‘Black Hole’. ‘Lake Negev’ developed around 1.8 and disappeared around 1.5 million years ago under ever increasingly arid conditions. It supported fish populations and laid down 15 m thick sediments over 18 sq km². Besides these lakes, there were smaller lakes, Oases and springs that would have allowed hominins to hop, skip and jump out of Isis territory and into the more accommodating environments of Europe and eastern Asia. Looking at the faunal remains you can get a sense of the climate that prevailed at whatever time period you are interested in. The climatic mapping of the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene of the ‘Black Hole’ are, you’ve guessed it understudied. We do know that two and a half million years ago, the forests of Azerbaijan gave way to Savannah and the Arabian peninsula experienced 2 million years of humid conditions, capable of keeping many large (now extinct) rivers topped up.
There you have it. We know alot, but we know so very little about this massive region of the world. We lack fossil hominins in this region and I don’t think Isis would be willing in finding their early ape ancestry any time soon. It would definitely be a useful distraction from Wahhabism. Do something useful for a change, Isis! Get out there and find us those damn fossils! You ignorant misogynistic apes!
Meganthropus palaeojavanicus (from the Ancient Greek, meaning Ancient Java’s Great Human) is a redundant genus and species that was first formally introduced by Gustav vonKoenigswald (1902 – 1982) in 1950. The genus once referred to a set of fossils found on the island of Java in the 1930’s, 1940’s, 1950’s and 1980’s. The Javan fossils are now attributed to the hominin Homo erectus that lived from 1.9 million years ago to 300,000 years ago and had a range from Africa to Eurasia.
vonKoenigswald’s Meganthropus palaeojavanicus
On the 15th of January 1942, the Director of the Geological Survey of the Netherlands Indies, W. C. B. Koolhoven wrote a letter to anatomist and palaeoanthropologist, Franz Weidenreich informing him that vonKoenigswald wishes the 1939 and 1941 to be attributed to a new genus and species of ape called M. palaeojavanicus. In 1945, Weidenreich referred to it as “vonKoenigswald’s Meganthropus palaeojavanicus”. Held in the Senckenberg Forschungsinstitute und Naturmuseum, an unpublished 1949 scientific paper written by vonKoenigswald proposes that Sangiran 1a, It was not until 1950, the vonKoenigswald committed his new genus and species to print in a formal introduction. As the sixth decade of the 20th century developed, consensus shifted towards H. erectus as the taxonomic appellation of the Javan fossils.
The following are a list of fossils that were taxonomically assigned to Meganthropus, but have now been officially assigned to H. erectus
Kromopawiro (a team member) discovered the fossil adult mandible fragment “near Glagahombo, north of Sangiran” not far from where another cranium was uncovered in 1939 and south of Sangiran 4’s location. Weidenreich described the 1.6 million year old fossil in 1945, in which he pointed out the size of the mandible and the primitive premolar morphology as evidence to support the application of a new genus and species – M. palaeojavanicus. This conclusion was revised in 1989, when Kramer concluded that the size was within the size range of H. erectus.
Dating to between 1.51 and 1.6 million years of age, Sangiran 7 (comprising 54 teeth) was recovered from 1937 to 1941. Fred Grine analysed some of the teeth in 1984, but it would be a decade later before he revised his earlier conclusion that they were hominin. As a result, three teeth FS 67, 72 and 83 were re-attributed to Pongo sp.
Uncovered in 1952, Sangiran 8 comprises fragment of mandible, with some teeth roots intact and a complete third molar crown. This individual is interpreted to have died in the jaws of a crocodile, based upon the scare marks on the fossil. The fossil was first described in 1953 by P. Marks concluding it lay outside the size range of H. erectus. In 1955, Le Gros Clark concluded that the fossil was within the range of H. erectus and that has remained the official attribution for Sangiran 8 ever since.
This partial adult cranium was first found in 1978 near Sangiran village, north of the River Chemoro and it was found as construction was underway on a new dam. The skull was found in the upper levels of the Sangiran Formation dating to between 1.66 and 1.58 million years of age. The fossil was described by Teuku Jacob in 1980, in which he attributed it to Meganthropus but was taxonomically revised in 2008 for reasons similar to the taxonomic revision of Sangiran 8. Indriati and Anton (2008) also noted that hyper-robust features of the fossil reflects earlier representatives of H. erectus.
Modern Uses of Meganthropus
Though taxonomically and scientifically redundant, Meganthropus is used by pseudoscientific Creationists as evidence for the Nephilim, giants that lived before Noah’s flood, referenced from an Iron Age manuscript called the “Book of Enoch”.
A trickle of scientific papers and posters have been published and presented over the decades, claiming evidence for Meganthropus. Authors have suggest that Sangiran 5 is evidence of the existence of an older, “more robust morph”, with pongo-like characteristics. Suggesting that a Gigantopithecus-like counterpart lived in island South-East Asia. The most recent appearance of support for Meganthropus was at the 83rd annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in 2014, a team of scientists led by Clement Zanolli presented a poster on their analysis of a fossil mandible fragment code named Arjuna 9. They suggested that teeth had enamel thickness and dental tissue proportions that differed from those seen in H. erectus. The statistical analysis of the enamel-dentine junction also seemed to support an attribution to Pongo sp. The fact remains, no evidence exists to support classifying the Javan fossils as Meganthropus.
On the 23rd of January 1995, a team of palaeontologists discovered a fragment of fossil jaw lying on the gravel desert of northern Chad. The fossil could not be accurately dated, nevertheless stratigraphic layers nearby suggested it could be around 3.5 million years of age. Back then, the site of Koro Toro was on the edge of a 3 million square kilometre Lake called Megachad. The fossil, now codenamed KT 12/H1 consisted of the front portion of the jaw with a number of teeth still in place. By using Isotopic analysis the diet of the hominin shortly before it died, can be determined. The fossil showed a preference for C4 plants, including sedges and grasses, suggesting that the area around Koro Toro was predominantly grassland. Comparing the fossil to other hominins, the features were considered very different compared to Australopithecus afarensis, 2,500 km away in Ethiopia and Kenya. The French team, led by Michel Brunet, concluded the fossil was part of a new species of Australopithecus – Australopithecus bahrelghazali. This caused a bit of a stir in the palaeoanthropological community, but progressively began to die down. The lack of fossil finds in Chad thereafter contributed to the rate at which the palaeoanthropological community forgot about the fossil, that was, until 2001. Given the same variety of animals can be found in both Ethiopia and Chad, it is not a stretch to imagine australopithecines travelling between the two regions three million years ago and many palaeoanthropologists now consider the fossil, a variant of Australopithecus afarensis.
How did the fossil make palaeoanthropologists rethink their understanding human evolution? “Abel” as the fossil became to be known reminded palaeoanthropologists that human evolution could have been more complex than previously accepted. Though once you considered the features of an Australopithecus afarensis jaw and compare that to “Abel”, it is acceptable to attach it to the Ethiopian hominin. The differences are subtle. It is worth reminding here however that the use of species names don’t tell us much about the hominins palaeobiology, are primarily to put, order to our understanding of evolution and are a useful means of scientific communication. Palaeoanthropology has had a long history of naming new species, when later we realize we were too optimistic. In the sense, that we forget how useless this venture is. More is learned from the fossils, about a hominins diet, locomotion patterns and physical characteristics than what species it belongs too. Thankfully, science is less focused on this and we are now learning much more about the hominin and the ecosystem it was once a part of. The second way in which “Abel” got us thinking, was via the surprise geographic location. Up until that time, any fossil finds made on the continent of Africa were made exclusively in eastern and southern Africa. “Abel”, reminded us that hominins were not just restricted to those regions and likely could be found all over Africa. Exciting though this prospect was, it could not solve the problem of preservation in areas where fossils cannot survive, in the hostile environments of the Sahel.
As A.D. 2014 draws to a close, the busy little apes at Legendary Pictures are getting down and dirty with post processing of their latest adventure on Isla Nublar – a representation of the legacy of humanities greed. Steven Spielberg has consistently produced and directed the best films Hollywood has ever known for the passed three decades. Though when he plays with Science……well…….he does quite alright actually. Though there are some things that annoy me. Spielberg is now the executive producer of Jurassic World (2015) and the film is directed by Colin Trevorrow. On the 25th of November 2014, the above trailer was published on Youtube. Let us have a look at the dinosaurs that feature in it.
We do not get a glimpse of the dinosaurs until 45 seconds in. A herd of Gallimius run alongside a safari truck. Then six, two person canoes paddling along a river, with three sauropods and two stegosaurids quenching their thirst along its bank. Some more sauropods and then a hold-your-breath moment arrives with the leaping of a Mosasaurid out of the water to snatch a dangling Great White Shark to a captivated audience. And you cannot have a Jurassic World without egg laboratory scenes. Things get dark when a bipedal dinosaur chases the main character. We get no view of the creature that will drive the chaos in the park, but we do get 4 dromaeosaurids acting like trained loyal dogs as the main character motorcycles through the park at night.
I will be looking forward to watching this movie next year. However, it appears to me that the main antagonist of the film will be a Tyrannosaurus rex only there will be something different about this rebooted dinosaur. The popularity of the Tyrannosaurus rex was what inspired this article and so I present to you the 3 things that Colin Trevorrow and crew will get all wrong in the latest edition of the ‘Park from Hell’.
1. Tyrannical Kings Get All The Publicity
Much debate continues regarding the Tyrannosaurids. The famous species of this genus was no more than 12 metres long by 4 metres high, 7 tons and its skin was partially covered in primitive feathers. It would have acted as a scavenger most of the time, but when the opportunity presented itself, it would hunt too. It was capable of running 11 miles per hour. Is that all? Pathetic!
In light of the previous episodes of the Jurassic franchise, it is likely that the above science will be ignored in the new film. The premise of the new film hinges on a genetic reboot of the Tyrannosaurus. Coupled with the pigmentation metamorphosis character of a cuttlefish, this new terror would also have neurological capabilities beyond what we think it evolved over the mere two million years it existed, from 67 to 66 million years ago. It is frustrating that filmakers, continue to fixate on creatures that sells, neglecting the diversity of life that existed on our dear planet for around 150 million years. Ultimately, the story should not suffer as a result of the science, but you should make an effort with every new film to introduce a truly kickass creature. Leave the Tyrant King Lizard alone, it has suffered enough.
Velociraptorids were probably creatures you could not mess with. Chickens on steroids, they measured about 2 metres in length, 50 centimetres high and weighed about 15 kilograms. Its jaw contained around 27 serrated and spaced teeth and its body was covered in primitive feathers. This ancient chicken’s most famous feature was of course the 6 and a half centimetre second digit on its foot. This was probably used as a means of griping onto prey it leaped upon and some evidence suggests it could have been used to aid in the cutting open of prey.
In the closing sequence of the trailer, we see our hero motorcycle into Jurassic Park with four bipedal creatures that bare a striking resemblance to the Velociraptors of the previous episodes of the Jurassic franchise. If they are indeed labelled Velociraptor, it will be very unfortunate. I’m hoping that Trevorrow will introduce us all to another species of dromaeosaurid called Utahraptor ostrommaysorum that lived 126 million years ago. It was about 7 metres long, about 2 metres high, weighed about half a ton and had a 22 centimetre second digit on its foot. Now seeing that in action would be quite cool. It’s like haveing an ultra chicken as your sidekick.
The film is not even released and already, there are issues regarding prehistoric accuracy. DON’T LET US DOWN TREVORROW!
Here are just some of the words, that you are likely to use in discussion of human evolutionary research. For more information regarding how to pronounce the words check out the video below.
Gaeilge To English
Pailéantraipeolaíocht – Palaeoanthropology
Anailís Lithic – Lithic Analysis
Seandálaíocht – Archaeology
Astrálaipiticín – Australopithecine
Scaipeadh – Dispersal
Bhreismheascadh – Admixture
Antrapóideach – Anthropoid
Pléisticéineach – Pleistocene
Geomoirfeolaíocht – Geomorphology
Bunús Daonna – Human Origins
Daoine anatamaíoch Nua-aimseartha – Anatomically Modern