The Infectious Diseases of Migrant Populations

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Syrian and Irawi immigrants getting off a boat from Turkey on the Greek island of Lesbos

The year 2015 will be remembered for the sudden increase of asylum seekers and refugees into Europe and this looks set to continue. Many academic studies attempted to estimate the risk of infectious disease thanks to this increased migration, but these fail to take into account the reasons for this migration. Most are assumed to have the same disease, which is not likely and so Professor Christian Wejse of the Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University set out to find out the prevalence of different diseases among different migrant populations. Generally, refugees have high risk of contracting tuberculosis, hepatitis B and HIV, with cutaneous diphtheria, relapsing fever and shigella appearing to a lesser extent. Hepatitis C and malaria was considered low risk among migrant populations. So, what explains the patterns we see here. Poor living conditions during migrations featured as the primary culprit, which was tracked along migration routes. Despite high transmission of disease by the migrant population, the risk to the population of the host country was significantly low. This research demonstrates that there is a need for the creation of a standard for health reception and a reporting of asylum seekers and refugees.

Professor Christian Wejse discussed the results of his research at the Society for the study of Human Biology (SSHB) Conference in early December of 2016, at the Aarhus Institute of Advanced Studies, Aarhus, Denmark.

 

 

The Siberian and the Laika Hunting Dog

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Recently, I came across this early photograph of unknown origin. Confusion abounds online as to the origin and story behind it. After some time spent researching I ended up uncovering a dark past of Tsarist Russia. Siberia remained untouched by the outside world for many centuries, but that changed when the Ivan IV Vasilyevich (1530 – 1584) initiated a colonisation of Siberia beginning in July of 1580. This had disasterous concequences for the indigenous people who did not take to kindly to this subjugation. From 1706 to 1741, a series of Itelmen rebellions were brutally crushed, while the Koryak Rebellions of 1745 – 1756 marked a truly dark and bloody time in Siberian history. By about 1882, 12 indigenous groups were exterminated by the Russian Cossacks.

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Yermak’s Conquest of Siberia (1895) – Vasiliy Surikov

In the midst of all this chaos, groups of ethnographers were making there way into these territories to record and document the way of life and the diverse languages of Siberia. We have four very important people to thank for this. Waldemar (Vladimir) I. Jochelson (1855-1937) and Waldemar (Vladimir) G. Bogoras (1865-1936) published many articles on the way of life of the Siberian peoples, as part of the famous Jesup Expedition . Waldemar Jochelson and his wife Dina Brodskaya, lived among the Koryak, Yukaghir, and Sakha (Yakut) peoples for nearly two years. Dina’s primary task was to prepare medical records and photograph life in Siberian, while she could do little to address the outbreak of measles. The Koryak people had abandoned their camp along the river Gizhiga to retreat up into the mountains with the reindeer. They suffered a 25% death rate thanks to the measles outbreak. Waldemar Bogaras and his wife Sofia lived with the Chukchee people who by 1900 had suffered a 30% drop in population thanks to the measles outbreak.

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River Gizhiga

And this brings me to the second consequence of warfare between the Russian Co
ssacks and the indigenous Siberian people – epidemic outbreak. The Siberian population was decimated by measles and smallpox outbreaks over the three hundred years of warfare. It was Waldemar who documented the languages and folklore of the Chukchee.

It is likely that Dina Brodskaya took the photograph of the Yukaghir adult and the Laika hunting dog in the autumn of 1900. I cannot imagine the frustration of the team in carrying the heavy photographic equipment across the inhospitable siberian wilderness.

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Major groups of eastern Siberia

Three things humanity can do to develop more respect for woman

In recent days youtube has lit up with videos about catcalling. An individual, nearly always male, shouts unflattering comments at a particular woman about how she looks, in public, on the streets. The unflattering aspect is, these women are objectified, a disrespectful mannerism.

I came across this video today:

This is very interesting and expected. There is a level of Islamophobia generally in the West. This manifests itself in various levels of intensity. So, this may explain the lack of catcalling to a degree.

Now, the Hijab-to-counteract-catcalling hypothesis is no excuse to legitimise the wearing of the Hijab. Traditionally the wearing of such is required by Allah, by Islam and as is well known this belief system is a figment of humanity’s imagination. From a Muslim standpoint, this video will be referenced to legitimise the Hijab wearing. It superficially halts catcalling. That’s fine, but men will always be men. Read on……

I want to address the issue of catcalling. Let’s examine all the cities of the world to see what results we would gain their. Of course, it depends upon the area you pass. Passing a red light district will give a particular set of results, while passing a financial district will give another. If you do not want to be catcalled avoid a red light district for example.

OK, so if you live in an area with high catcalling rates, nothing can be done in the short term. But long term, male attitudes need to change and raising awareness helps.

Afro-americans are unfairly represented, in my opinion. They will be maligned a great deal by this. Now, there are 20 hours of footage here…………..what was edited out. If the selection actually reflects an average for that twenty hours, then we are looking at a human male culture that has not changed with the times.

As male ape’s, we are no different from males of other genera. We are evolutionarily set to check out the opposite sex. Just read the selfish gene. Ultimately, some are asking for males to change their attitude. Truth is it’s hard to reverse millions of years of evolutionary statis. Culture has only recently developed exponentially over the last 200,000 years. Change will not come overnight while a sexdrive is around.

The rise of Islam, is subjugation of the feminine on an infamous epic scale. The West continued to surge ahead with progress, leaving Arabia behind in the smoke and dust. When I refer to the West, I’m not talking about the US and Europe, I’m talking about those regions of the North American, mainland SE Asian and European continents which were greatly influenced by the enlightenment of the 18th century onwards. Places where learning and knowledge are valued and Scientific methodology prevail.

There are locations, for example segments of New York or the American midwest or the Tabloid reading demographic, where this is not the case. Homophobia, sexism, rascism and religious tolerance still persists to varying degrees. All that can be done here is

1. stop buying gutter journalism. Need I say more…
2. Raise awareness of accepted and unexaggerated political correction ((respect for women: stop catcalling), rascism, homophobia)
3. Vote Democrate (if state-side)
4. Understand that we are all animals and if we keep that in mind, we will accept being evolutionarily driven organisms with one goal the desire to procreate.

Summary: How do you stop catcalling? Hijab is not the answer, raising awareness is. But know that it is going to take some time before catcalling diminishes on city streets. Doesn’t mean it will disappear, because it won’t. As long as there are two sexes, there will always be catcalling.

P.s: This ignores same-sex catcalling as there is little useful data.