On the 6th of March 2016, the accomplished palaeoprimatologist Elwyn Simons passed away in his sleep at the age of 85. It is difficult to overstate this man’s contribution to our understanding of the evolution of Primates. He directed over 90 palaeontological expeditions between 1961 and 2012 which produced over 300 books and peer-reviewed journal articles. As Gregg Gunnell of the Duke Lemur Center noted “I don’t know of anyone in the last half century who has influenced the field as much as he has”.
Elwyn LaVerne Simons was born on the 14th of July 1930 in Lawrence City, Kansas. From William Marsh Rice University, Houstan, Texas, he earned his bachelors degree before moving onto Princeton and Oxford for his doctoral degrees. Prior to joining Duke University in North Carolina, he spent 17 years at Yale University as a professor.
“It’s fun to find fossils because you never know what your’re going to find and there’s always a chance that you’ll find something quite unusual, and that kind of excitement makes it sort of like a treasure hunt”
Friderun Ankel-Simons of the Duke Primate Center, recalled the many years of working with her husband. The expeditions were very challenging with all obstacles put in their way from vehicles getting stuck in the sand or mud and running out of diesel on many different occassions. These were sharply contrasted with the good times out in the field, camping beneath the stars in the desert, hearing the desert fox calling or arguing lemurs nearby. He was a very active man, depriving himself of sleep countless times. Daniel Gebo of the Northern Illinois University remembers one time he was conversing with Elywn and out of the blue he said “I have to take a nap NOW” and would simply fall asleep, leaving Daniel wondering what to do about what they were talking about.
Elwyn had the power to captivate an audience, recalled John Fleagle of Stony Brook University. He was an expert storyteller, a model for people who specialise in scientific communication.
Famously, Simons discovered the fossilised remains of an ancient genus of primate – Aegyptopithecus – this primate lived in Egypt between 35 to 33 million years ago. It was probably about the same size as South America’s Howler Monkey and remains one of the best known extinct primates from that time.One afternoon, while at an anthropology conference, Simons asked if he could use an empty chair beside a group of anthropologists. “Actually, a friend of ours is just getting a drink”, responded one member of the group. Simons proceed to lift up the chair and say “Yes? Well I discovered Aegyptopithecus“
After joining Duke University in 1977, Simons first task was to take an ailing Primate Center and make it an essential breeding programme for wild Lemurs. With populations dwindling on Madagascar, the Malagasy government permitted Simons to capture wild lemurs, relocating them to North Carolina, where he could diversify the gene pool of species. This in his own word created “a second line of defense against extinction”. His passion for the work he was doing, was plain to see in the cradling and hand-feeding of premature newborn lemurs. Thanks to Simons, Duke Primate Center now has the most diverse collection of captive lemurs ouside of Madagascar with hundred of individuals representing over 20 species. The breeding programme allowed Simons to reintroduce lemurs to the wild.
Elywn Simons will forever be remembered for shedding light on primate evolution in the Oligocene of Egypt and helping prevent the extinction of Madagascar’s Lemurs. Simons is survived by his wife of more than 40 years, Friderun Ankel-Simons; a brother, Herbert Simons; three children, D. Brenton Simons, Cornelia Seiffert and Verne Simons; and two grandchildren, Eleanor and William Simons.
Right: Elwyn Simons cares for an Aye-Aye. Left: An Aye-Aye scoping out its next meal.
Do check out the “Adopt A Lemur” Project, which helps support the great work done at the Duke Primate Center.
For much of the last decade, palaeoanthropologists have been investigating the internal structure of the teeth of our ancient ancestors. The morphology of the Enamel-Dentine boundary is hidden beneath the enamel surface and so is not subjected to wear by the hominins continuous chewing throughout her or his lifetime. It turns out that even if you only have a single molar tooth, it is actually possible to identify the species of the hominin that would have had that tooth in it’s jaw or maxilla. For example, the dentine horns of a species like Australopithecus africanus are tall and pointed, while those of Paranthropus boisei are short and squat. These different structures are greatly influenced by the diet of that hominin. Paranthropus, it seems spent more time chewing on grasses and sedges, but Australopithecus had a more varied diet. A team of palaeoanthropologists have examined the teeth of a Serbian hominin dating to between 397,000 to 525,000 years of age. This hominin was much more humanlike than Australopithecus or Paranthropus, but though all the team had were the wisdom teeth, it was possible to help shed light on the classification of the hominin.
Current models of infectious disease in the Pleistocene tell us little about the pathogens that would have infected Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis). High quality Altai Neanderthal and Denisovan genomes are revealing which regions of archaic hominin DNA have persisted in the modern human genome. A number of these regions are associated with response to infection and immunity, with a suggestion that derived Neanderthal alleles found in modern Europeans and East Asians may be associated with autoimmunity. Independent sources of DNA-based evidence allow a re-evaluation of the nature and timing of the first epidemiologic transition. The paradigm of the first epidemiologic transmission, the hypothesis that epidemic disease did not occur until the transition to agriculture, with larger, denser and more sedentary populations, has been essentially unchallenged since the 1970s. Our views of the infectious disease environment of the Pleistocene period are heavily influenced by skeletal data and studies of contemporary hunter-gatherers. New genetic data – encompassing both hosts and pathogens – has the power to transform our view of the infectious disease landscape experienced by Neanderthals in Europe, and the anatomically modern humans (AMH) with whom they came into contact. The Pleistocene hominin environment cannot be thought of as free from infectious disease. It seems likely that the first epidemiologic transition, envisaged as part of the package of the Holocene farming lifestyle, may be fundamentally different in pace or scope than has previously been suggested. This paper demonstrates how high quality genomic data sets can be used to address questions arisingfrom the ecological context that shaped the co-evolutionary relationship we share with infectious diseases. We analyse the evidence for infectious disease in Neanderthals, beginning with that of infection-related skeletal pathologies in the archaeological record, and then consider the role of infection in hominin evolution. We have synthesised current models on the chronology of emergence of notable European disease packages and analyse what implications this evidence has for the classical model of the first epidemiologic transition. Using emerging data from Neanderthal palaeogenomics and combining this with fossil and archaeological information we re-examine the impact of infectious diseases on human populations from an evolutionary context. These palaeogeneticists argue that the first epidemiologic transition in Eurasia was not as tightly tied to the onset of the Holocene as has previously been assumed. There is clear evidence to suggest that this transition began before the appearance of agriculture and occurred over a timescale of tens of thousands of years. We suggest that the epidemiological transition was not, as has been thought since the 1970s, a phenomenon of the human shift to sedentary agriculture during the Holocene but a much older and more complex process that involved at least two species of humans. The origin of resistance to infectious disease has a much deeper time frame and is highlighted by the ingression of Neanderthal DNA into modern human lineages. The transfer of pathogens between human species may also have played a role in the extinction of the Neanderthals. Our analysis of the genomes of archaic hominins provides evidence of pathogens acting as a population-level selection pressure, causing changes in genomes that were passed on to descendants and preserved in the genomes of modern Eurasians. the analysis of ancient genomes demonstrates that human behavioural patterns (in this case a shift to agricultural subsistence) should not be used as an ecological proxy to explain shifting trends in the co-evolutionary relationship between pathogens and human populations.
Acknowledgements: Rob Foley, Marta Lahr and the members of the Human Evolutionary Science Discussion Group at the University
of Cambridge. Funding for this research was provided by King’s College Cambridge and UCL.
A discovery in southern China of human teeth dated to more than 80,000 years old indicates that Homo sapiens was present in the region considerably earlier than had previously been suspected.
Debate over when our species, Homo sapiens, first dispersed from Africa across southern Asia is hindered by a lack of relevant fossil evidence between the eastern Mediterranean and southeast Asia. Exciting new material is presented in this issue by Liu et al., who describe a collection of H. sapiens teeth from a cave in southern China’s Hunan province. The age and morphology of the teeth suggest that modern humans reached southern China long before they had arrived in northern China or in Europe.
One very important but ultimately difficult question is What evidence is there for the movement of hominins? We have fossil hominin remains but most of the time the scarcity of these mean that we have to look elsewhere. Alot of biogeographical studies now look to other contemporaneous fauna that lived at the same time, after all there are more surviving remains of ancient elephants than hominins and as a result they can shed some light on the movement of hominins. There are occasions where the fossil hominin remains themselves can shed some light on their movements, by understanding their diet.
Australopithecus bahrelghazali was uncovered in northern Chad in the mid-1990s. Now considered by most palaeoanthropologists to be Australopithecus afarensis, this individual lived about 3.5 million years ago in a different world to the one we are familiar with today. Gabriele Macho of the University of Oxford, UK attempted to revisit the KT 12/H1 fossil. Macho argues that the evidence she has examined suggests Au. bahrelghazali migrated to and lived in a refugium at Koro Toro, northern Chad.
There is one difference that exists between Au. bahrelghazali and Au. afarensis and that lies in enamel thickness of the teeth. With an intermediate to thin grade of thickness, Au. bahrelghazali is thinner than that of Au. afarensis. This hominin is likely to have subsisted on sedges, which are superficially like grasses but with a different internal structure. As the climate in north central Africa became dryer, species that relied on sedges were squeezed into smaller areas called refugia, with bodies of water. Around 3.9 million years ago, climatic records show a gradual aridification of Africa and it seems plausible that that Au. afarensis made it way as far west as Chad, before becoming isolated and adapting to changing conditions, i.e. enamel thickness reduced.
Date Found: March 1985
Found By: Ngrejeng Villager
Locality: Near Ngrejeng Village, Indonesia
Fossil: Partial mandible (Right side), with M1 and M2. The latter had not yet erupted at time of death.
Age: 1.02 – 1.51 million years of age
Papers to check out:
1994 – Aziz et al – Preliminary report on recent
discoveries of fossil hominids from the Sangiran area, Java.
2005 – Kaifu et al – Hominid mandibular remains from Sangiran (1952-1986) Collection
2006 – Kaifu – Advanced dental reduction in Javanese Homo erectus
Everybody has heard of the Elgin Marbles and the debate surrounding the right’s of countries to those artefacts. These marbles are famous the world over but this story is repeated many more times not just in archaeology, but palaeoanthropology also. Zambia was once a colony of the British Empire and it was during that time that a certain hominin skull E 686 was uncovered. This skull is now lies in the vaults of the South Kensington Museum, London. In Zambia, Deputy Minister Susan Kawandami (pictured) recently reported before the Zambian Parliament that years of talks failed to secure the return of E 686 to Zambia with the Natural History Museum, London prepared to make copies of the skull instead. Kawandami will now establish new discussions through UNESCO, while Minister of Chiefs and Traditional Affairs, Nkandu Luo will visit London to establish a dialogue with the Trustees of the Museum.
If the Natural History Museum is ever to return the fossil, one thing is for sure, Zambia will have to convince the London Museum, that it is proactive in heritage (particularly palaeoanthropological) promotion and will ensure great care for the priceless skull. Which is currently not the case. The famed locality has no interpretative centre, no sign, no indication that two pivotal hominin bones – E 686 (Skull) and E 691 (tibia), were uncovered there. On the 17th of June 1921, A. S. Armstrong and A. W. Whittington uncovered those remains at Mutwe wa Nsofu, Mulungushi Road, Kabwe, Zambia. That same year, the fossils were given a new human species name – Homo rhodesiensis. This species has, thus far, only ever been found in Africa and it is a species that is seldom used by palaeoanthropologists. Most consider it a variation of Homo heidelbergensis. A key species that diverged into Homo sapiens (in Africa)and Homo neanderthalensis (in Europe). From about 1.5 million to 500,000 years ago, is a time that palaeoanthropologists have difficulty understanding due to the particularly patchy fossil record. So, what I have described is quite simplistic and many would argue over the exact details. The two fossils represent two adults males, that lived around 1 million years ago. Sadly, given they were found in the 1920’s, excavations in the field of human evolution were in their infancy and so, grossly inaccurate. The only way to date the site was through biostratigraphy. By looking at the animals that were found in the layers in which the fossils were found, later palaeoanthropologists compared those assemblages to strata at other sites which were radiometrically dated. The Kabwe stratigraphy was quite similar to Bed IV at the Oldupai Gorge which was dated to between 780,000 years to 1.3 million years.
Zambia’s National Heritage and Conservation Commission (NHCC) is now in the process of rehabilitating the site. Chief executive officer of the commission, Collins Chipote warned that though the site was intact, it needs to be secured and developed. A Kabwe Mining museum was commissioned by Minster Nkandu Luo (pictured), which will be run by the Lead-Zinc Mining company Enviro-Processing Ltd. a subsidary of the giant Berkeley Mineral Resources PLC. More effort is required on the part of Zambia to show that they have the determination to celebrate their priceless heritage and right now, there seems to be no action, but plenty of talking.
Efforts to return the cranium have remained futile. Minister for Tourism Charles Banda visited London’s Natural History Museum to engage in talks over the issue. Learn more here.
The ‘Black Hole’ of Palaeoanthropology is not a term you hear very often, but then again what is there to say about the biogeographic history of a 1.77 million square kilometer region (Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and Iran) with virtually no faunal, human or archaeological sites. At this point it would seem easy to resign yourself to the words of Timothy D. White at the dawn of the 21st century, that we are not going to find many more fossil hominins. The mark of a great palaeoanthropologist is to never give up that curiosity for the unknown. Since White’s depressing prediction, he has been roundhouse kicked to Wrongville, with the spectacular finds of Ethiopia, South Africa, Myanmar, China, Flores and much much more. We have learned so much thus far, don’t lets forget this. Sounds great but these inevitably throw up more questions than answers. And the ‘Black hole’ is a particularly hard nut to crack.
What does archaeology have to offer? Ethiopia features the earliest concrete evidence for hominin stone tool manufacture. At 2.6 million years of age it predates the earliest known human – Homo habilis – by less than 300,000 years years (Fossil Code: A.L. 666). Saudi Arabia has a rather rich representation of Mode 1 (Oldowan) stone tool clusters. If you don’t know to millimeter accuracy where the stone tool was found, or if it is a surface find then it is worthless to science. The Saudi sites were also used during the Holocene (11,700 years ago to present), begging the question how can you separate Early Pleistocene (2.5 million years ago to 700,000 years ago) from Holocene activity? At least we can tell that hominins took one route out of Africa. Stone tools similar to the Oldowan found at Perim Island supports the hypothesis that early hominins crossed the Bab al Mandab Strait (20 miles wide). Iran has probably the most depressing lack of archaeological evidence of the region. Isolated finds dominate, both the Oldowan and Acheulean records of Iran and few excavations have taken place. South of the Caspian Sea is the site of Ganj Par, which yielded 100 limestone tools within half a hectare. This assemblage shares similarities with those of Ubediya, Israel and the Oldupai Gorge (also known as the Olduvai Gorge), Tanzania. Turkey repeats much the same story. Of the 200 Palaeolithic sites, less than 25 have been even partially excavated. The majority are restricted to the fringes of the Anatolian plateau. None are any older than 1.3 million years of age, further supported by Argon-Argon dating of Kula, western Turkey to 1.24 million years of age. The site was the location of a palaeomeander which contained a solitary Quartz flake, 5 x 4 cm. Volcanic activity interfered with the palaeomeander and it was that lava flow that allowed the date to be so accurate. The take-home-message from Turkey is the earliest securely dated archaeological remains support the 1.1 million years calculated for the Kocabas skullcap, which shares affinities with OH 9 and KNM ER 3733, attributed to H. erectus. Debate continues as to its taxonomic status, but it does reflect a great deal of H. erectus characteristics. The Archaeology tells us that hominins with the ability to make stone tools were already out of Africa 1.8 million years ago, at the site of Dmanisi, Georgia.
It is the richest fossil hominin location at the ‘black hole’ fringe. The Fall of 2013 was just another milestone in sites long history of archaeological investigation. The discovered cranium (D4500) was reunited with its jaw (D2600) and the team of palaeoanthropologists led by David Lordkipandize concluded that the five individuals represented members of the same species, but retracted the classification of D2600 (Homo georgicus) for Homo erectus ergaster georgicus. This raised some eyebrows in the palaeoanthropological community, particularly Fred Spoor, palaeoanthropologist and lecturer at the UCL Department of Anthropology, who pointed out that such an action is not outlined in the code of zoological nomenclature. This is a minor debate in the palaeoanthropology, but most agree that Homo erectus exhibited a variation comparable to that seen in modern Homo sapiens today. Dmanisi is proof that hominins were already out of the African continent by 1.8 million years. Additionally, although the dating of the hominins of Java are in the doldrums, these specimens could be as much as 1.8 million years of age. Prior to that time some hominin species made it’s way north, but which one?
On the 23rd of January 1995, a French-Chadian team of palaeontologists discovered a fragment of fossil jaw (Fossil Code: KT 12/H1) lying on the gravel desert of northern Chad. The fossil (nicknamed “Abel”) could not be accurately dated, nevertheless stratigraphic layers nearby suggested it could as much as 3.5 million years of age. Back then, the river Bahr El Ghazal flowed into a 3 million square kilometer lake called Megachad. This hominin foraged on grasses that dominated the Koro Toro region. The palaeontologists gave “Abel” a new species name – Australopithecus bahrelghazali distinguishing it from another australopithecean – Australopithecus afarensis. That species lived in the eastern region of the continent, over 2,500 km from the Bahr El Ghazal site. The animal remains found in the stratigraphic layers of both regions were pretty much identical, which means the ecosystems were the same. Therefore, you can see why some palaeoanthropologists consider it plausible that “Abel” is just another Au. afarensis. This goes back to the argument that, what we are looking at here is just another variation of the same species. Either way, here we have australopitheceans in eastern and north central Africa. Theoretically, it is plausible for australopitheceans to have made their way into Arabia.
Every organism has a landscape format that they thrive within. Lions are quite at home in the savannah, Tigers frolick in the dense jungles of the Indian subcontinent and hominins, particularly australopitheceans, were quite at home in savannahs. If we are to prove that they made their way into Arabia, there should be an extension of savannah into the Eurasia 3-4 million years ago. Sadly we are not seeing this, but what do we see. The faunal record of Saudi Arabia is particularly fragmented and sparse. Western Turkey (Calta) 2.3 million years ago, saw Raccoons, Giraffes, Hippos and the extinct “Running” Hyena. Many associate Bethlehem with the Christian story, but few know that at about the same time, this region featured Raccoons, Sabre-Toothed Cats, Rhino, an ancestor to the Mammoth and ancestor to the modern boar. While 110 kilometers north of Bethlehem and 700,000 years later, Baboons lived south of the Lake of Tiberias, around Ubeidiya. Lakes were magnets for faunal activity and therefore hominin activity.
The An Nedfud desert of northern Saudi Arabia is classic wilderness today, 2 million years ago it was the hub of a diverse ecosystem with a lake as the centrepiece. The faunal remains were recovered from three localities and share similarities with the kind of fauna you would expect at Ubeidiya and the Oldupai Gorge. Hippos were found at these sites and since modern day counterparts prefer standing water to a depth of 5 meters, it gives an initial sense of the size of ‘Lake An Nedfud’. A lake capable of supporting fish life, but this is not the only lake to have supported faunal biodiversity in the ‘Black Hole’. ‘Lake Negev’ developed around 1.8 and disappeared around 1.5 million years ago under ever increasingly arid conditions. It supported fish populations and laid down 15 m thick sediments over 18 sq km². Besides these lakes, there were smaller lakes, Oases and springs that would have allowed hominins to hop, skip and jump out of Isis territory and into the more accommodating environments of Europe and eastern Asia. Looking at the faunal remains you can get a sense of the climate that prevailed at whatever time period you are interested in. The climatic mapping of the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene of the ‘Black Hole’ are, you’ve guessed it understudied. We do know that two and a half million years ago, the forests of Azerbaijan gave way to Savannah and the Arabian peninsula experienced 2 million years of humid conditions, capable of keeping many large (now extinct) rivers topped up.
There you have it. We know alot, but we know so very little about this massive region of the world. We lack fossil hominins in this region and I don’t think Isis would be willing in finding their early ape ancestry any time soon. It would definitely be a useful distraction from Wahhabism. Do something useful for a change, Isis! Get out there and find us those damn fossils! You ignorant misogynistic apes!
Meganthropus palaeojavanicus (from the Ancient Greek, meaning Ancient Java’s Great Human) is a redundant genus and species that was first formally introduced by Gustav vonKoenigswald (1902 – 1982) in 1950. The genus once referred to a set of fossils found on the island of Java in the 1930’s, 1940’s, 1950’s and 1980’s. The Javan fossils are now attributed to the hominin Homo erectus that lived from 1.9 million years ago to 300,000 years ago and had a range from Africa to Eurasia.
vonKoenigswald’s Meganthropus palaeojavanicus
On the 15th of January 1942, the Director of the Geological Survey of the Netherlands Indies, W. C. B. Koolhoven wrote a letter to anatomist and palaeoanthropologist, Franz Weidenreich informing him that vonKoenigswald wishes the 1939 and 1941 to be attributed to a new genus and species of ape called M. palaeojavanicus. In 1945, Weidenreich referred to it as “vonKoenigswald’s Meganthropus palaeojavanicus”. Held in the Senckenberg Forschungsinstitute und Naturmuseum, an unpublished 1949 scientific paper written by vonKoenigswald proposes that Sangiran 1a, It was not until 1950, the vonKoenigswald committed his new genus and species to print in a formal introduction. As the sixth decade of the 20th century developed, consensus shifted towards H. erectus as the taxonomic appellation of the Javan fossils.
The following are a list of fossils that were taxonomically assigned to Meganthropus, but have now been officially assigned to H. erectus
Kromopawiro (a team member) discovered the fossil adult mandible fragment “near Glagahombo, north of Sangiran” not far from where another cranium was uncovered in 1939 and south of Sangiran 4’s location. Weidenreich described the 1.6 million year old fossil in 1945, in which he pointed out the size of the mandible and the primitive premolar morphology as evidence to support the application of a new genus and species – M. palaeojavanicus. This conclusion was revised in 1989, when Kramer concluded that the size was within the size range of H. erectus.
Dating to between 1.51 and 1.6 million years of age, Sangiran 7 (comprising 54 teeth) was recovered from 1937 to 1941. Fred Grine analysed some of the teeth in 1984, but it would be a decade later before he revised his earlier conclusion that they were hominin. As a result, three teeth FS 67, 72 and 83 were re-attributed to Pongo sp.
Uncovered in 1952, Sangiran 8 comprises fragment of mandible, with some teeth roots intact and a complete third molar crown. This individual is interpreted to have died in the jaws of a crocodile, based upon the scare marks on the fossil. The fossil was first described in 1953 by P. Marks concluding it lay outside the size range of H. erectus. In 1955, Le Gros Clark concluded that the fossil was within the range of H. erectus and that has remained the official attribution for Sangiran 8 ever since.
This partial adult cranium was first found in 1978 near Sangiran village, north of the River Chemoro and it was found as construction was underway on a new dam. The skull was found in the upper levels of the Sangiran Formation dating to between 1.66 and 1.58 million years of age. The fossil was described by Teuku Jacob in 1980, in which he attributed it to Meganthropus but was taxonomically revised in 2008 for reasons similar to the taxonomic revision of Sangiran 8. Indriati and Anton (2008) also noted that hyper-robust features of the fossil reflects earlier representatives of H. erectus.
Modern Uses of Meganthropus
Though taxonomically and scientifically redundant, Meganthropus is used by pseudoscientific Creationists as evidence for the Nephilim, giants that lived before Noah’s flood, referenced from an Iron Age manuscript called the “Book of Enoch”.
A trickle of scientific papers and posters have been published and presented over the decades, claiming evidence for Meganthropus. Authors have suggest that Sangiran 5 is evidence of the existence of an older, “more robust morph”, with pongo-like characteristics. Suggesting that a Gigantopithecus-like counterpart lived in island South-East Asia. The most recent appearance of support for Meganthropus was at the 83rd annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in 2014, a team of scientists led by Clement Zanolli presented a poster on their analysis of a fossil mandible fragment code named Arjuna 9. They suggested that teeth had enamel thickness and dental tissue proportions that differed from those seen in H. erectus. The statistical analysis of the enamel-dentine junction also seemed to support an attribution to Pongo sp. The fact remains, no evidence exists to support classifying the Javan fossils as Meganthropus.